· 3 min read

Speeding Up Spring Boot/JUnit tests

From 8 minutes to less than 3 minutes.

From 8 minutes to less than 3 minutes.

JUnit Logo

{% include note.html content=“For beginners: Tests provide fast feedback to your code and ensure everything works as you intended. Rapid tests help get feedback and ensure your integration and deployment pipelines work faster.” %}

There are several ways I recently discovered that increase speed on Spring Boot + JUnit tests substantially. From 8 minutes to 3 minutes.

Some of these are

  1. Use Right Test Slice (Saved 25% running time)
  2. Speeding up @SpringBootTest and avoiding @DirtiesContext (Saved 25% running time)
  3. Run tests in parallel (Saved 37% running time)

Use Right Test Slice (Saved 25% running time)

Several runners come with Spring Boot.

@SpringBootTest is the most general of them. Primarily this is used in combination with @DirtiesContent, which will restart spring boot after every test class by default which isn’t ideal.

Using @SpringBootTest is Integration Tests. We don’t want every test to use this.

We want to load the minimum spring-boot infrastructure as possible and still ensure accurate tests. There are a few things that can help:

  1. If tests are related to a DB. Use @DataMongoTest or equivalent JPA runner with @Import annotation.
  2. If tests are related to Web/Controller. Use @WebFluxTest or equivalent Spring MVC runner. If you want to use embedded MongoDB with it, use @AutoConfigureDataMongo. Most other systems also have annotations starting with @AutoConfigure{systemName}
  3. Important: If tests require initializing a single bean. Use @ExtendWith(SpringRunner.class) with @Import to specify the bean to initialize.
  4. The best case: Aim for Tests that are purely java based and do not involve spring boot, but it isn’t possible in every scenario.

Speeding up @SpringBootTest and avoiding @DirtiesContext (Saved 25% running time)

@DirtiesContext is an annotation that recreated the Spring Context after each test or each test class. To avoid using @DirtiesContext, ensure all your tests don’t depend on the same data. For this, you can wrap your data creation in a test data factory and ensure the data produced is random.

As previously mentioned, one should avoid using @SpringBootTest, but if you can’t do without it, ensure you use WebEnvironment.MOCK without @DirtiesContext.

@SpringBootTest(webEnvironment = SpringBootTest.WebEnvironment.MOCK)

Try to use it with @Import or @ContextConfiguration to limit the creation of beans.

Run tests in parallel (Saved 37% running time)

Create a junit-platform.properties file in test/resource/junit-platform.properties and add the following minimum. 1

junit.jupiter.execution.parallel.enabled = true

Now you can either use one of these,

  1. add the following to every class you want to run parallel. @Execution(CONCURRENT)
  2. add more to junit-platform.properties
junit.jupiter.execution.parallel.mode.default = same_thread|concurrent
junit.jupiter.execution.parallel.mode.classes.default =  same_thread|concurrent


Some tests can’t run parallelly, so I prefer manually adding @Execution(CONCURRENT).

I found data tests with @DataMongoTest by asserting over different data.

Another positive side effect of having @Execution(CONCURRENT) is that these tests run first. And since these tests are faster than the SAME_THREAD mode, they lead to instant feedback.

What are some other ways to speed up JUnit performance?


  1. Parallel Execution - JUnit Documentation 2

Back to Blog